We’ve, probably all daydreamed at some point about what life will be like in the future, whether you’re, optimistic shimmering city’s, hoverboards and robot assistants, or pessimistic pollution, 3d advertising and robot overlords.
Well, the future won’t, be quite like any of those it will be dominated by challenges such as climate change, the ever-increasing population and artificial intelligence, [ Music ]. This is aqua timber tower one at the Barbican.
It’s. 315 meters. This would be have constructed the tallest building in London production in use of concrete amounts to something like 8 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, and if concrete were country, it would be something like.
The third emitter in the world. Timber is the only building material that we can grow at a large scale and is genuinely our only renewable resource. As long as we use timber that comes from sustainably managed forests in a responsible way.
Wood is an ancient building material and we have worked with it for a long long time. Therefore, in some ways it is a reef package material, but it is also a newer and advanced material for cutting-edge applications and to high-rise timber, for instance.
So what we’re doing here is we’re using traditional wood such as spruce and beech, and we are engineering, those Timbers cutting them up and canoeing them back together. In doing so, we’re, creating much large elements of timber, so, for example, what we have here is something called cross laminated timber and what we’ve got is through planks that have been layered up in three five and seven layers And each time we put a new layer on, we turn the spruce through 90 degrees.
So we start stacking these pieces of timber together and by doing that, that takes a very dimensionally stable product that we can use in in very tall buildings. So these are trees that are planted as crops with the intention to cut them down, just like wheat or hay, the trees sequester carbon as they grow, and then that carbon gets put into buildings.
Well, we discuss buildings, we say you’re, going to double the number of residential requirements that you’ll have in the world. Why not use this material because it goes negative, it basically absorbs co2.
So by example, there’s, a new building that’s, just going up not yet completed in London for that very large building in concrete that has a footprint of about seven 2,000 tons of co2, but if it were out of timber, It would be a 80,000 tons of co2.
The first worry people always have with timber with wood. Is that it burns and of course it does, but the way it burns is quite well understood and and can be easily controlled, the burning of timber, the process of it produces a char layer and this char layer itself is highly insulative and acts as a thermal Barrier to the source of the fire, modern building systems with their fire escape routes and their capacity studies and their sprinkler systems are really easily made safe for wood as much as they are for Steeler concreting for an architect.
Of course, we’re designers, so when we see a new material, we envision a new type and appearance of building a new way that the materials to be used. My project is focusing on a building in Chicago a crew drove of each tower it in Tahlia, timber design is composed of CLT Elvia and glue language.
All innovative engineered wood, duplex units are prefabricated, duplex units come along by barge and then they are stacked to create the tower. So you should stop module module to create, and then, through the middle, you have this glass atrium, which has got all the light in sort of open green space.
We have a natural affinity for wood. We surround ourselves with it. Timber has a very strong emotional and psychological effect on people. Their heart rates go down, people become more sociable and your brain capacity is apparently increases which I’m, really happy to hear.
I don’t know the scientific answer of why it makes us feel good, but it does. You now have this material, which has retains a sort of the aesthetic quality and the well-being equality do people enjoy being in a wooden building, but now with engineered wood, you have all these structural properties that it can compete with things like steel or concrete and be Used in skyscraper design – and so I think the benefits of that are huge – the world needs carbon-free, clean energy.
I want my children and you know the admitted grandchildren. I want them to have a healthy planet to live on and feudin is so exciting. I don’t want it to be always fifty years away. You know, and doesn’t really have to be fifty years away.
Fusion is the reaction that powers, the Sun and the stars, and we want to use this energy source here on earth. But how can we harness the energy of the Sun and how soon in a fusion reaction, small particles join together to make larger ones and release energy, but without the huge gravitational force of the Sun on earth we need to trap our fuels in machines called tokamaks.
It’s, a Russian acronym toroidal chamber magnetic coils, so it’s. A ring doughnut shaped trap for fusion fuels. Now a tokamak energy. We have a new approach for developing fusion. Faster energy is one of the main problems facing the world, and so where we need to try and solve it.
Fusion is completely clean thousand years or so of good electricity supply that doesn’t mess up the atmosphere. This is like the holy grail of energy to achieve fusion charge, particles need to overcome the repulsive force between them.
This means they need to be moving incredibly fast, so they collide hard, which means our fuel must be really hot over a hundred million degrees. This is not science fiction. We have actually achieved the temperatures which exceed well the interior of stars at such high temperatures, atoms break apart and become a charged gas plasma.
The fourth state of matter charged particles are affected by magnetic fields they spin around field lines. So we can use magnetic bottles to trap our fusion fuels. The essential feature of a tokamak is a strong toroidal field around the torus, and this is produced by passing current in these coils.
The plasma shape is controlled by the field in these poloidal coils. The jet tokamak here in Oxfordshire is the biggest in the world at the moment, and the itter device in southern France is now being built.
The tokamak energy team can learn a lot from these big fusion devices, but we want to do fusion with smaller and faster tokamak. Energy wants to accelerate the development of fusion power and we’ll. Do this by combining two emerging technologies, efficient, spherical, tokamaks and high-temperature superconductors, a spherical tokamak is a tokamak that has been squashed up, so it makes more efficient use of the magnetic field.
At the center high-temperature superconductors can reach higher magnetic fields that more attainable temperatures. Tokamaks. Always dreamed to demonstrate, possibility to run continuously. There are no magnetic fusion devices that run more than a few hours, and this will be the first one.
We’ve already built a small tokamak, st 25 and also the world’s. First tokamak using entirely high-temperature superconducting magnets theoretical work has been published. That shows that tokamaks don’t need to be as big as scientists originally thought.
You need a higher temperature to get fusions so for a fusion power plant. You really need to get those high magnetic fields. One of the exciting things for me is having a small device, allows you to develop a lot faster, so you can develop more of the latest technologies quicker.
Think it’s extremely exciting technology. You know we need the high magnetic fields and that’s. The way you’re, going to get them. One of the great attractions of the small fusion reactors is, if you want to generate a few gigawatts you, since you have a farm of these miniature reactors, so you can see how they each individual one can be magnified much more economically from a giant one by Starting small and building up quickly talking about energy, wants to accelerate the development of fusion power on earth.
We are aiming to build the first fusion device to achieve an energy gain. Fusion is about to get a lot more exciting, [, Music ], so most people will think of Greenland and Antarctica when I think of gracious but outside of Greenland and Antarctica, the Himalayas.
The third biggest error in the world of snow and ice – they’re, often known as the third Pole. First, we had to get up there so that involved walking and at very high altitudes, very slowly and getting to about 5,000 meters elevation.
You know it’s, a very, very big region. We’re talking about between half million and a million square kilometres in terms of the man range area. The locations are distant from settlement. They’re deep inside these.
This sort of mountain terrain, actually sort of physical access is quite hard, so Himalayan glaciers are covered in a thick layer of rock debris, and this varies from sort of tiny sand. Granules to huge house sized boulders.
This debris layer acts as a blanket on the glacier and so insulates the glacier from the warming temperatures as climate changes, but it also makes it really difficult to understand what’s happening on the glass here.
So this is um computed last year surface, and these are huge ice cliffs. You can tell they’re huge by the fact that these two little blobs in this red dot. Ah well, one’s me. You can see how difficult it would be to try and find out what was going on under this debris live because of the debris cover oftentimes these glaciers, the recession, rather than live being a allowed for a session as she was going on, is death thinning the Himalayas taut snow and ice over the course of the year.
The big thing is that when nuts snow arrives it’s stored in the ice and it melts each each summer and each spring you get this melt. I was a huge role in the water running off that would otherwise be stored.
So this was the first time I’ve, been I thought that we were going to get up there and there’d, be no one there and we’d, be on our own, and the glassy would not be coupled With the humans in Nepal, basically, but actually you see that they live alongside it.
The glass here is a huge part of their life, seeing them their clothes in a local running water supplies, and so on. You hear a Vilanch is falling at night onto the glassy. Trekking through the landscape, saying all the terraced farmland really kind of brings home quite how dependent they are on local water resources.
So this is a prayer wheel and these line the path as you walk up, to convey glassier as part of Buddhist culture. Water is a hugely important element and these prayer wheels, as they turn, are meant to you and release good luck about a fifth of the world’s.
Population rely on this classifed water every year for the drinking water, for the sanitation, for irrigation, for crops and for hydroelectric power, and that’s. Countries like India, China, Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan.
Since the middle Ice Age, Himalayan glaciers have been shrinking declining those changes have been most noticeable, certainly since the 1990s, it seems to be in an acceleration. What we have is some very specific data that is for one glassier.
By taking this field data, we can use it with the modeling. We’ve already done to try and predict how these flat is going to change. What we want to know is what happened in the future, how much of that water will run off in future years.
So, as climate change starts to happen, the glacier will melt more, the water increases, and so they & # 39. Ve got more water for irrigation, but then you get to the point where there isn’t enough ice left.
We tend to view the Himalayas as remote too far away. We maybe only see climbing trips Everest region, but we don’t realize just how many people rely on that water for the everyday needs.