This video was sponsored by curiosity stream, get access to my video streaming service nebula. When you sign up for curiosity stream using the link in the description we’ve. All heard of climate change, Greta has told us about it.
David Attenborough has forced us to watch, walruses die ice caps are melting, Australia is burnin, it’s been intense. The vast majority of scientists now believe that human industries are transforming our climate.
Looking at the headlines, you think climate change snuck up on us out of nowhere. Surely we’ve only known about greenhouse gases for a few decades, at the most yeah Exxon knew about the effects fossil fuels were having on the climate back in the 70s and did their best to suppress it.
But surely it couldn’t go much further back than that, could it yeah try the two hundred years, [ Music ], taking on that science title so in science explained in this video is simplified and it explains to the best of my own Masonic.
I’m, a scientist, nor am i war. Look if anything takes people in Canada. Climate change is happening for a number of different reasons, but the main culprit is greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide emitted from the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil.
So what exactly is a greenhouse gas and how do they affect the climate? This is our planet, and this is the Sun. The Sun shoots energy towards earth as visible light, and these solar rays can easily pass through the gases in our atmosphere.
The earth absorbs some of these rays heats up and then emits them as thermal radiation, otherwise known as heat. This radiation, however, can be absorbed by certain gases in our atmosphere, so some of this heat goes back down towards earth and warms this forms a kind of greenhouse like heat-trapping barrier around the earth, the more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the more heat gets trapped since The Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide levels have risen more than 38 %, and our constant desire for more and more land has unfortunately caused us to chop down massive amounts of carbon adoring forests.
But don’t. Let the existential dread is set in don’t. Let the existential dread said in the first human person to theorize, something like the greenhouse effect was Joseph Fourier. This clever Frenchman was trying to figure out why the earth wasn’t a frozen wasteland.
He calculated how much energy the Sun bombarded the earth with and realized that it should be much colder than it actually is. Something must have been trapping the sun’s heat in 1824 paper. He hypothesized heat in the state of light, finds less resistance in penetrating the air than in repassing into the air when converted into non luminous heat.
This was a pretty good description of the greenhouse effect and it was made by a person old enough to have been friends with Napoleon Fourier never actually used the term greenhouse. He didn’t even conduct an experiment to test his hypothesis.
Nor could he even pinpoint which gas could cause this effect. That answer would come from the most unlikely of creatures, a hobbit know it. It was not it wasn’t a hobbit. You’re, trying to tell me that someone called Eunice Newton foot, isn’t a hobbit, okay, whatever I guess thought was a woman, however, so in the eyes of 19th century scientists, her opinion who is about as relevant as a hobbits Anyway, which we will unfortunately see shortly, having made the awful decision to be born a woman in 19th century America, foot didn’t have much hope of becoming a scientist as women.
Weren’t offered much scientific education at the time, but she did enjoy science and had a curious mind. So she conducted her own amateur scientific experiments. Eunice wanted to know how gasses interacted with the sun’s light, so she conducted an experiment.
She placed thermometers inside of glass, cylinders and then added different amounts of gas and varying amounts of moisture into them using an air pump. She then placed the cylinders out in the Sun and measured their temperature differences over time she tested gases such as water, vapor, common air and carbon dioxide.
She noticed that the cylinders filled with carbon dioxide or water vapor heated up quicker and remained hot longer from this. She speculated that an atmosphere of carbon dioxide would give our earth a high temperature and, if, as some suppose, a one point of its history, the air had mixed with a larger proportion than at present.
An increased temperature must have necessarily resulted. Her paper was presented by a male scientist on her behalf at the American Association for the Advancement of science in 1856 and published in the American Journal of Arts and Science under the catchy title circumstances affecting the heat of the sun’s rays, foot Had built on furriers idea, but she actually tested it and discovered the carbon dioxide was one of the greenhouse gases that trapped heat in our atmosphere.
She correctly hypothesized that changing the levels of carbon dioxide would changed the earth’s, temperature, which laid the foundation of modern climate science, but no one paid attention to her work.
No one saw how significant of hypothesis this was. Yunus simply became a footnote in climate history. Instead, the credit for the discovery of the greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases is given to Irish scientist.
John Tyndall Tyndall was obsessed with a question that dominated Victorian era: science, the Ice Age theory. It had recently been discovered that large parts of the earth were once covered with ice, and scientists were fascinated with answering what had caused the ice ages, which apparently there are five of how do they held a rope Patrick Stewart into this named iris Gretl from scratch.
Landis, okay, first greyish-brown, apparently that’s, that’s, nice. Where were we? There were a few theories floating about on what could have caused these ice ages? The first and most obvious was frost giants but Tyndall like Fourier and foot before him thought that maybe the atmosphere could be responsible to test whether or not gases could trap heat.
Tyndall built this insane looking thing which is actually much simpler than it appears. Basically, heat is pushed through this tube and the tube is filled with the gas being tested. The heat leaves the tube through the other end hits this cone and the heat level is compared against the heat hitting the control cone from the other side.
Using this heat difference between the cones Tyndall could calculate how much heat the gas in the tube had absorbed. He published his results in another spy, Selene and paper on the absorption and radiation of heat by gases and vapors, and on the physical connection of radiation, absorption and conduction.
His results showed that water, vapor and carbon dioxide, along with some other gases, were the primary heat absorbers. He found that carbon dioxide could trap 1,000 times more heat than common air. The solar heat possesses in a fire higher degree than that of lime, light the power of crossing the atmosphere, but when the heat is absorbed by the planet, it is so changed in quality that the rays emanating from the planet cannot get with the same freedom back Into space those the atmosphere admits of the entrance of the solar heat, but checks its exit and the result is a tendency to accumulate heat at the surface of the planet.
Tyndall had perfectly described the greenhouse effect and proven it with his cones, which is why he is normally credited with discovering his experiment revealed what foot had discovered three years before, but in Tyndall’s later writings.
He claims with regard to the action of other gases upon heat. We are not so far as I am aware, possessed of a single experiment. One could argue: Tyndall must have seen foot’s work, since the journal that carried foots paper also carried a paper by Tyndall on colour blindness.
If Tyndall went to go, look at his own published paper, he could easily have seen foot & # 39. S will unfortunately, never know whether or not he saw her paper before conducting his experiment. But Tyndall experiment did correct some problems with unisys by being able to isolate heat radiation, for example, which isn’t really surprising, considering his advanced scientific education, and so his experiment has been much more influential in the field of climate science than hers.
But unisys great idea in the end, wasn’t her experiment. It was her hypothesis that changes in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could alter our planets temperature and, as far as I know, she was the first person to think this.
This was 150 years ago. This is pre American Civil War. Who knows what she could have accomplished? Had she had Tyndall’s advantages? The final piece of the climate change puzzle was put together by swedish physicist savant, a Sundberg or Hennis in 1896.
Who is probably the first person to predict that human industry could severely affect the climate? And yes, this savant a Thornburg? Our honey Asst is related to savant, a Sundberg father of Greta thumb burg.
I guess that family just has a knack for climate stuff, like findell. Our NES was also interested in the ice age debate. He liked ethanol’s idea. The changes in the atmosphere like decreased carbon dioxide levels could have caused ice ages, so he wanted to calculate just how much of a change in carbon dioxide levels would take to alter the climate.
Luckily, for him, Swedish scientist Arvid hog boom had recently published an essay estimating just how much carbon dioxide was in the Earth’s atmosphere throughout history. With this information at hand, our Henny’s began calculating how much heat will be trapped.
If carbon dioxide levels changed, reneus did tens of thousands of calculations all by hand without a calculator doing this, he discovered, like coding. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by half would lower the temperature in Europe some four to five degrees Celsius, which is an ice age level.
This explains how the earth might have cooled in the past, but it sparked another idea for our Hennis. Could this make the earth heat up now avid hog boom in his calculations on how much carbon dioxide was in the atmosphere throughout history included things like emissions from volcanoes, but he also had the great idea to include emissions from human industry like factories.
Looking at this. Ah, reneus realised that if you doubled the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, it would raise the world’s temperature by five to six degrees Celsius and that if humanity continued to burn fossil fuels and pump greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, we could Trigger this rise in temperature, which is pretty close to modern predictions that cost millions of dollars and that are calculated on supercomputers, our high Gnaeus was the first person to predict that burning fossil fuels could trigger global warming, but for our hen iasts.
All of this was simply hypothetical. He didn’t. Imagine we could ever manage to burn enough fossil fuels to ever seriously impact the climate. A Henny is predicted that climate change would happen eventually, but he thought it would take three thousand years for global carbon dioxide levels to raise by 50 %.
They’ve, shot up by about 30 % in the last hundred, but don’t. Let the existential dread set in don’t. Let the existential dread set in don’t, let the existential dread set in it’s. Fine, it’s; fine, it’s.
Fine! You’re fine anyway, temperature increase, probably didn’t sound too bad to the Swedish scientists. Some scientists, like Walter Nernst, even thought about burning more coal for no reason other than to release more carbon dioxide to purposefully heat up the earth.
Come on Walter, why Jesus our Henny has even liked the idea of global warming, but the influence of the increasing percentage of carbonic acid in the atmosphere we may hope to enjoy ages with more equal and better climates.
They couldn’t. Imagine the negative effects of climate change, the mass extinctions, the environmental destruction, the depressing David ambra documentaries seriously. I haven’t, been the same since the war was seen it ruined.
My life, climate change might seem like it came all of a sudden. If you George, by panicked, tweets depressing headlines and global protests, but the science predicting it is very old, we just weren’t really paying attention.
This channel is all about paying attention to the world learning about beliefs, peoples and interesting topics. Recently, I’ve, been paying attention to a bunch of David Attenborough documentaries, my favorite of which is David Ambrose.
A light on earth which is absolutely gorgeous and manages to turn nature into some sort of stunning. Light. Show honestly put this up on a big screen in a dark room and just let it blow you away and you can watch it over on curiosity stream.
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